Minggu, 28 Oktober 2007

http://en.wikipedia.org/

Grade 7 Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/
Renaldo H.
Humanities
Ancient world maps
Ancient world maps cover depictions of the world from Classical times to the Age of Discovery and the emergence of modern Geography.
Babylonian world map
The oldest known world map is the Imago Mundi of 6th century BC Babylonia.[1] The map as reconstructed by Eckhard Unger shows Babylon on the Euphrates, surrounded by a circular landmass showing Assyria, Armenia and several cities, in turn surrounded by a "bitter river" (Oceanus), with seven islands arranged around it so as to form a seven-pointed star.
The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean. The descriptions of five of them have survived:
• the third island is where "the winged bird ends not his flight," i.e., cannot reach.
• on the fourth island "the light is brighter than that of sunset or stars": it lay in the northwest, and after sunset in summer was practically in semi-obscurity.
• The fifth island, due north, lay in complete darkness, a land "where one sees nothing," and "the sun is not visible."
• the sixth island, "where a horned bull dwells and attacks the newcomer"
• the seventh island lay in the east and is "where the morning dawns."
Anaximander
reconstruction of Anaximander's map
Anaximander (died ca. 546 BC) is credited with having created the first map of the world, which was circular in form and showed the known lands of the world grouped around the Aegean Sea at the center. This was all surrounded by the ocean.

Hecataeus of Miletus
reconstruction of Hecataeus' map
Hecataeus of Miletus (died ca. 476 BC) is credited with a work entitled Ges Periodos ("Travels round the Earth" or "World Survey'), in two books each organized in the manner of a periplus, a point-to-point coastal survey. One on Europe, is essentially a periplus of the Mediterranean, describing each region in turn, reaching as far north as Scythia. The other book, on Asia, is arranged similarly to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea of which a version of the 1st century CE survives. Hecataeus described the countries and inhabitants of the known world, the account of Egypt being particularly comprehensive; the descriptive matter was accompanied by a map, based upon Anaximander’s map of the earth, which he corrected and enlarged. The work only survives in some 374 fragments, by far the majority being quoted in the geographical lexicon Ethnika compiled by Stephanus of Byzantium.
Eratosthenes
1883 reconstruction of Eratosthenes' map.
Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) drew an improved world map, incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander the Great and his successors. Asia become wider, reflecting the new understanding of the actual size of the continent. Eratosthenes was also the first geographer to incorporate parallels and meridians within his cartographic depictions.

Ptolemy
15th century reconstruction of Ptolemy's map
The Ptolemy world map is a map based on the description of the world contained in Ptolemy's book Geographia, written Circa 150. Although authentic maps of Ptolemy have never been found, the Geographia contains thousands of references to various parts of the old world, with coordinates for most, which allowed cartographers to reconstruct Ptolemy's world view when the manuscript was re-discovered around 1300.

Tabula Peutingeriana
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is an itinerarium showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. The original map dates from the 4th century. It covers Europe, parts of Asia (India) and North-Africa. The map is named after Konrad Peutinger, a German 15-16th century humanist and antiquarian. The map was discovered in a library in Worms by Conrad Celtes, who was unable to publish his find before his death, and bequeathed the map in 1508 to Peutinger. It is conserved at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Hofburg, Vienna.
The Tabula Peutingeriana, from Britain in the west, to India in the east.
Middle Ages
From a 12th c. copy of Etymologiae.
Isidore
Main article: T and O map
The medieval T and O maps originate with the description of the world in the Etymologiae of Isidore of Sevilla (died 636). This qualitative and conceptual type of medieval cartography represents only the top-half of a spherical Earth.[3] It was presumably tacitly considered a convenient projection of the inhabited portion of the world known in Roman and Medieval times (that is, the northern temperate half of the globe). The T is the Mediterranean, dividing the three continents, Asia, Europe and Africa, and the O is the surrounding Ocean. Jerusalem was generally represented in the center of the map. Asia was typically the size of the other two continents combined. Because the sun rose in the east, Paradise (the Garden of Eden) was generally depicted as being in Asia, and Asia was situated at the top portion of the map.

The world map from the Saint-Sever Beatus.
Beatus Mappa Mundi (1050 CE)
Main article: Beatus of Liébana
Beatus of Liébana (c. 730 - 798) was a Spanish monk and theologian. He corresponded with Alcuin, and took part in the Adoptionist controversy, criticizing the views of Felix of Urgel and Elipandus of Toledo. He is best remembered today as the author of his Commentary on the Apocalypse, published in 776. The Commentary also contained one of the oldest Christian world maps. Although the original manuscript and map has not survived, copies of the map survives in several of the extant manuscripts.

Map from Mahmud al-Kashgari's Diwanu Lughat at-Turk, showing the 11th century distribution of Turkic tribes.
Mahmud al-Kashgari (1072 CE)
Qarakhanid scholar Mahmud al-Kashgari compiled a "Compendium of the languages of the Turks" in the 11th century. The manuscript is illustrated with a "Turkocentric" world map, oriented with east on top, centered on the Taklamakan Desert and the Altai, showing the Caspian Sea to the north, and Iraq, Azerbaijan, Yemen and Egypt to the west, China and Japan to the east, Hindustan, Kashmir, Gog and Magog to the south. The world is shown as encircled by the ocean.[4]The map is now kept at the Pera Museum in Istanbul.

The world map of Al-Idrisi
Al-Idrisi Mappa Mundi (1154 CE)
Main article: Muhammad al-Idrisi
Arab geographer Al-Idrisi's incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East gathered by Arab merchants and explorers with the information inherited from the classical geographers to create one of the most accurate maps of the world to date.

Hereford Mappa Mundi (1300)
The Hereford Mappa Mundi
Main article: Hereford Mappa Mundi
The Hereford Mappa Mundi is a T and O map dating to ca. 1300. The map is signed by one "Richard of Haldingham or Lafford". Drawn on a single sheet of vellum, it measures 158 cm by 133 cm. The writing is in black ink, with additional red and gold, and blue or green for water (with the Red Sea coloured red).

Kangnido world map (1402)
Main article: Kangnido map
The Kangnido (the full Hanja name means "Historical Emperors and Kings Integrated Map of Countries and Cities") is a map of the world made in Korea in 1402, by Kim Sa-hyeong (김사형:金士衡), Yi Mu (이무:李茂) and Yi Hoe (이회:李撓). The map was created in the second year of the reign of Taejong of Joseon, preceding the first European voyages of exploration. It is 158.5 cm by 168.0 cm, painted on silk.
The Kangnido world map (1402).
The Mongol Empire connected the western Islamic world with the Chinese sphere. It enabled the integration of advanced Islamic science and traditional Chinese knowledge. In 1286 Jamāl al-Dīn made Khubilai Khan a proposal for merging several maps of the empire into a single world map, and it resulted in the Tianxia Dili Zongtu (天下地理總圖; now lost). Since most of the official maps are lost, relatively new manuscripts of private, supposedly less accurate maps are known today. The most famous one is the Kangnido (1402), a Korean variant preserved in Japan.
Like Istakhri's and al-Idrisi's, maps of the Mongol Empire depict Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Europe. They shown China in the way traditional Chinese ones do but also reflect the information of South Asia gathered by Muslim merchants.

De Virga world map (1411-1415)
The De Virga world map (1411-1415).
Main article: De Virga world map
The De Virga world map was made by Albertinus de Virga between 1411 and 1415. Albertin de Virga, a Venetian, is also known for a 1409 map of the Mediterranean, also made in Venice. The world map is circular, drawn on a piece of parchment 69.6x44 cm. It consists of the map itself, about 44 cm in diameter, and an extension containing a calendar and two tables.

Bianco world map (1436)
Main article: Bianco world map
The Bianco map (1436).
Andrea Bianco's atlas of 1436 comprises ten leaves of vellum, measuring 29 X 38 cm., in an 18th century binding. The first leaf contains a description of the Rule of Marteloio for resolving the course, with the "circle and square", two tables and two other diagrams. The next eight leaves contain various navigation charts. The ninth leaf contains a circular world map measuring 25 cm in circumference. And the final leaf contains the Ptolemaic world map on Ptolemy's first projection, with graduation. Some believe Bianco's maps were the first to correctly portray the coast of Florida, as a macro-peninsula is attached to a large island labeled Antillia. Bianco also collaborated with Fra Mauro on the Fra Mauro world map of 1459.
Fra Mauro world map (1459)
The Fra Mauro map (1459).

The Fra Mauro map was made between 1457 and 1459 by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro. It is a circular planisphere drawn on parchment and set in a wooden frame, about 2 meters in diameter. The original world map was made by Fra Mauro and his assistant Andrea Bianco, a sailor-cartographer, under a commission by king Alfonso V of Portugal. The map was completed on April 24, 1459, and sent to Portugal, but did not survive to the present day. Fra Mauro died the next year while he was making a copy of the map for the Seignory of Venice, and the copy was completed by Andrea Bianco.
After 1492
Map of Juan de la Cosa
Further information: Age of Discovery

Juan de la Cosa map (1500)
Juan de la Cosa, a Spanish cartographer, explorer and conquistador, born in Santoña in the northern independent province of Cantabria, made several maps of which the only survivor is the Mappa Mundi of 1500. It is the first known European cartographic representation of the Americas. It is now in the Museo Naval in Madrid. Reproductions of it are given by Humboldt in his Atlas géographique et physique.

Map of Pietro Coppo, Venice, published in 1520
Cantino world map (1502)
The Cantino planisphere is the earliest surviving map showing Portuguese discoveries in the east and west. It is named after Alberto Cantino, an agent for the Duke of Ferrara, who successfully smuggled it from Portugal to Italy in 1502. The map is particularly notable for portraying a fragmentary record of the Brazilian coast, accidentally discovered in 1500 by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral and subsequently explored by Gonçalo Coelho and Amerigo Vespucci.


The Piri Reis map by Piri Reis in 1513

Piri Reis map (1513)
The Piri Reis map is a famous world map created by 16th century Ottoman Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. The map shows part of the western coasts of Europe and North Africa with reasonable accuracy, and the coast of Brazil is also easily recognizable. Various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia. The map is noteworthy for its depiction of a southern landmass, also shown on other sixteenth century manuscript and printed maps, that some controversially claim is evidence for early awareness of the existence of Antarctica.

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